Le livre de Martin J. Bollinger permet de découvrir un sujet ignoré : le transport maritime des condamnés au Goulag durant l'époque stalinienne. Ils furent plus d'un million à être envoyés vers la Kolyma, à l'est de la Sibérie, entre 1932 et 1953. Un seul moyen de transport était possible : les bateaux spécialement aménagés, masqués aux puissances occidentales qui bien souvent les avaient procurés à l'URSS, voire entretenus pendant la guerre. Dès l'embarquement, les condamnés connaissaient l'horreur des camps avant même d'y être parvenus. L'auteur détaille le fonctionnement du Goulag, cite de nombreux témoignages et étudie chacun des navires qui participèrent à cette déportation.

Between 1932 and 1953, a fleet of ordinary cargo ships was pressed into extraordinary service to relocate approximately one million forced laborers to the Soviet Gulag in Kolyma, in far northeastern Siberia. The most infamous gulag in Soviet Union was accessible only by sea and this transport of people took a devastating toll on humans lives. Bollinger details this tragic saga using firsthand testimony from those involved in the operation and material from both American and Russian archives and examines how much Washington knew about the use of American ships under Stalin.


General Merchant Ship Directories
Jordan, Roger W. The World’s Merchant Fleets 1939: The Particulars and Wartime Fates of 6,000 Ships. London: Chatham, 1999.
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping: 1921–22. London: Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1922.
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping: 1935–36. London: Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1936.
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping: 1952–53. London: Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1953.
Talbot-Booth, E.C. What Ship Is That? London: Sampson Low, Marston, circa 1941.
Talbot-Booth, E.C. Merchant Ships 1943. London: Macmillan, 1944.
Talbot-Booth, E.C. Merchant Ships 1959. London: Journal of Commerce, 1959.

Directories of Soviet and Russian Ships
Berezhnoi, Sergey S. Советские Суда и Предоставляют Ленд-Лез [Soviet ships and vessels of Lend-Lease]. St. Petersburg: Velen Publishing House, 1994.
———. Военные корабли и Суда Советского Морского Флота, 1917–1927 [The warships and auxiliary vessels of the Soviet Navy, 1917–1927]. Moscow: Military Publishing House of the Ministries of Defense of the USSR, 1981.
———. Военные корабли и Суда Советского Морского Флота, 1928–1945 [The warships and auxiliary vessels of the Soviet Navy, 1928–1945]. Moscow: Military Publishing House of the Ministries of Defense of the USSR, 1988.
Bock, Bruno, and Klaus Bock. Soviet Bloc Merchant Ships. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1981.
Central Intelligence Agency. Status of Soviet-Held US Lend-Lease Vessels (S-2278). Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Reports, 1967. Report prepared April 18, 1967, and declassified January 23, 2001.
Curtis, Jeffery and Ambrose Greenway. Soviet Merchant Ships. Homewell, Havant, Hampshire: Kenneth Mason, 1976.
Greenman, David, and E.C. Talbot-Booth. Warsaw Pact Merchant Ships: Recognition Handbook. London: Jane’s, 1987.
Meister, Jürg. Soviet Warships of the Second World War. London: Macdonald and Jane’s, 1977.
Office of Chief of Naval Operations. Russian Merchant Vessels: ONI 208-R. Washington, D.C.: Intelligence Division, December 20, 1942.
———. Russian Merchant Ships in the Pacific: ONI 208-R Revised. Washington, D.C.: Intelligence Division, April 1945.
———. Soviet Merchant Shipping—Pacific: Intelligence Report 63-43. Washington, D.C.: Intelligence Division, 1943.
———. Soviet Merchant Ships in Pacific—Current Listing. Op-16-F-8, ser. 11-41. Washington, D.C.: Intelligence Division, February 16, 1943.
———. Sino/Soviet Bloc Merchant Ships: Report ONI 36-1G. Washington, D.C.: Intelligence Division, June 27, 1963.
Russian Maritime Register of Shipping. St. Petersburg, Russian Maritime Register of Shipping. Archival research of the register provided in personal communication to the author by Victor Volkov, August 2001.
Soviet Merchant Ships 1945–1968. Homewell, Havant, Hampshire: Kenneth Mason, 1969.
Tapac, A.E. Военные корабли Имперского Российского Флота, 1892–1917 [Warships of the imperial Russian fleet, 1892–1917]. Minsk: Kharbast, 2000.
Wilson, E.A. Soviet Passenger Ships, 1917–1977. Kendal, England: World Ship Society, 1978.

General History of Merchant Ships
Andrews, Ralph W. and Harry A. Kirwin. This Was Seafaring. New York: Bonanza Books, 1955.
Det Statistiske Departement. “Danmarks Vareindførsel og—Udførsel I Aaret 1933.” Statistisk Tabelværk, Femte Række, Litra D, No. 54. Copenhagen: Det Statistiske Departement, 1934.
Dunn, Laurence. Merchant Ships of the World 1910–1929. London: Blandford Press, 1973.
Garnham, S.A., and Robert L. Hadfield. The Submarine Cable. London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1934.
Gibbs, James A., Jr. Pacific Graveyard. Portland: Binfords and Mort, 1950.
Haigh, K.R. Cableships and Submarine Cables. London: Adlard Coles, 1968.
Hardy, A.C. Merchant Ship Types. London: Chapman and Hall, 1924.
Mitchell, W.H., and L.A. Sawyer. British Standard Ships of World War I. London: Journal of Commerce and Shipping Telegraph, 1968.
Newell, Gordon. The H.W. McCurdy Marine History of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: Superior, 1966.

History of Specific Shipbuilders
Eriksen, Erik. Værftet bag de 1000 skibe: Burmeister & Wain Skibsværft [The company that launched a thousand ships: Burmeister & Wain Shipyard]. Copenhagen: Burmeister and Wain, 1993.
Middlemiss, Normal L. British Shipbuilding Yards. Vol. 3. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Shields, 1995.
Mitchell, C. Bradford. Every Kind of Shipwork: A History of Todd Shipyards Corporation. New York: Todd Shipyards, 1981.
Nederlandsche Scheepsbouw-Maatschappij. The Hague: J. Hamme, Jr., circa 1985.
Spasskogo, I.D., ed. История Отечественного Судостроения: в Пяти Томах [History of domestic shipbuilding: In five volumes]. Vol. 4. St. Petersburg: Shipbuilding Press, 1996.
Taylor, Herbert E. Swan, Hunter, & Wigham Richardson, Limited: A Historical Retrospect. Wallsend-on-Tyne: Swan, Hunter, 1932.
Two Hundred and Fifty Years of Shipbuilding by the Scotts at Greenock. Glasgow: James Jack Advertising, 1961. [@BIBend]
[@A]Histories of Specific Shipping Lines and Other Operators
[@BIB]China Navigation Company Limited: A Pictorial History 1872–1992. Hong Kong: John Swire and Sons, 1992.
Clephane, Lewis P. History of the Naval Overseas Transportation Service in World War I. Washington, D.C.: Naval History Division, 1969.
de Boer, G.J. The Centenary of the Stoomvaart Maatschappij “Nederland” 1870–1970. Kendal: World Ship Society, 1970.
Dick, H.W. and S.A. Kentwell. Beancaker to Boxboat: Steamship Companies in Chinese Waters. Canberra: Nautical Association of Australia, 1988.
Knap, G.H. Hundert Jahre Seeschiffahrt: Geschichte der Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomboot-Maatschappij N.V. Amsterdam: N.V. Drukkerij En Uitgeverij J.H. De Bussy, 1956.
Lawford, G.L., and L.R. Nicholson. The Telcon Story. London: Telegraph Construction and Maintenance, 1950.
McAlister, A.A. and Leonard Gray. A Short History of H. Hogarth & Sons Limited. Kendal: World Ship Society, 1976.
Mulder, P. De Schepeu v. de KNSM 1856–1981. Amsterdam: Erato, 1983.
Schol, Aad. Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomboot-Maatschappij. Alkmaar: De Alk bv, 1998.
Torrance, William. Steamers on the River. Brisbane Market: W. Torrance, 1986.
Van Popta, W.E. De Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij-KNSM. Alkmaar: Alkenreeks, n.d.
Worden, William L. Cargoes: Matson’s First Century in the Pacific. Honolulu: Univeristy Press of Hawaii, 1981.

Russian/Soviet Maritime and Naval History
Fairhall, David. Russia Looks to the Sea: A Study of the Expansion of Soviet Maritime Power. London: Andre Deutsch, 1971.
Guzhenko, T.B.  Морской Транспорт СССР: К 60-Летию Отрасли [Sea transport of the USSR: To the 60th anniversary of the branch]. Moscow: Transport, 1984.
Harbron, John D. Communist Ships and Shipping. London: Adlard Coles, 1962.
Hara, Teruyuki. インディギルカ号の悲劇-1930年代のロシア極東 [The Indigirka tragedy: The Russian Far East in the 1930s]. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1993.
Long, D.M. The Soviet Merchant Fleet: Its Growth, Strategy, Strength and Weaknesses 1920–1999. London: Lloyd’s of London Press, 1986.
Mitchell, Donald W. A History of Russian and Soviet Sea Power. London: André Deutsche, 1974.
Muromov, I. Сто Великих Кораблекрушений [A hundred great shipwrecks]. Moscow: Veche, 1999.
Osichanskii, Petr. П.П. Куянцев: Я Бы Снова Выбрал Море . . . [P.P. Kuyantsev: I would again choose the sea . . .] Vladivostok: Far Eastern Association of Sea Captains, 1998.
Sovfracht—70 Years. Moscow: Sovfracht, 1999.
The Voyage of the Chelyuskin., Translated by Alec Brown. New York: Macmillan, 1935.
Watson, Derek. Molotov and Soviet Government: Sovnarkom, 1930–41. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
Woodward, David. The Russians at Sea. London: William Kimber, 1965. [@BIBend]

Russo-Japanese Confrontations
Coox, Alvin D. Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.
Hough, Richard. The Fleet That Had to Die. London: New English Library, 1957.
Meshchanskaia, Svetlana. Противостояние Японии и СССР/Бои у озера Хасан (29 июля - 11 августа 1938 года) [Confrontation of Japan and USSR: fighting at Lake Khasan (July, 29 to August, 11, 1938)].  Moscow: BTV-MN, 2002.
Novikov-Priboy. Tsushima: Grave of a Floating City. Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1937.
Politovsky, Eugène S. From Libau to Tsushima. Translated by Maj. F.R. Godfrey, RMLI. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1908.
Pleshakov, Constantine. The Tsar’s Last Armada: The Epic Voyage to the Battle of Tsushima. New York: Basic Books, 2001.

Spanish Civil War
Howson, Gerald. Arms for Spain: The Untold Story of the Spanish Civil War. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Radosh, Ronald and Mary R. Habeck, eds. Spain Betrayed: The Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.

World War II
Birch, Alan and Martin Cole. Captive Christmas: The Battle for Hong Kong—December 1941. Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia, 1979.
Deane, R. John. The Strange Alliance: The Story of our Efforts at War-Time Co-Operation with Russia. New York: Viking Press, 1947.
Dingman, Roger. Ghost of War: The Sinking of Awu maru and Japanese-American Relations, 1945–1995. Annapolis. Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
Evans, Mark Llewellyn. Great World War II Battles in the Arctic. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Hays, Otis, Jr. Home from Siberia: The Secret Odysseys of Interned American Airmen in World War II. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1990.
Haynes, John Earl, and Harvey Klehr. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
Hutson, Harry C. Arctic Interlude: Independent to Russia. Bennington, Vt.: Merriam Press, 1997.
Jones, Robert Huhn. The Roads to Russia: United States Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969.
Jordan, George R. From Major Jordan’s Diaries. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1952.
Meusholt, James. “Burrard Dry Dock Co Ltd.” Unpublished manuscript, circa 1970.
National Security Agency. The Venona Documents. Washington, D.C.: 1998.
Navy Department. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Division, 1963.
Paperno, Alla. Тайны и История: Ленд-Лез Тихий океан [Secrets and history: Lend-Lease Pacific Ocean]. Moscow: Terra-Book Club, 1998.
Office of Chief of Naval Operations. ONI-B2: Soviet Merchant Shipping Pacific. Washington, D.C.: Intelligence Division, July 1943. Available through National Archives and Records Administration, RG 38 370 13/17/01, boxes 347–348, entry 98A: Intelligence Division, Confidential Reports of Naval Attaches, ser. 58-43.
Rohwer, Jürgen. Axis Submarine Successes of World War Two. London: Greenhill Books, 1999.
Rudnev, Georgi Alekseevich Огненные Рейсы [Fiery flights]. Vladivostok: Dal’nevostochnoe Book Publishing House, 1975.
———. Огненные Рейсы [Fiery flights]. Second edition.  Vladivostok: Dal’nevostochnoe Book Publishing House, 1990.
———. На морских дорогах войны [On the seaways of war]. Vladivostok: Dal’nevostochnogo University Publishing House, 1995.
Ruegg, Bob and Arnold Hague. Convoys to Russia: 1941–1945. Kendal: World Ship Society, 1992.
Ruge, Friedrich. The Soviets as Naval Opponents: 1941–1945. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1979.
Stettinius, Edward R. Jr. Lend-Lease: Weapon for Victory. New York: Macmillan, 1944.
Wallace, Henry A. Soviet Asia Mission. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1944.
Woodman, Richard. The Arctic Convoys: 1941–1945. London: John Murray, 1994. [@BIBend]
[@A]Soviet Arctic Shipping Operations
[@BIB]Armstrong, Terrance. The Northern Sea Route: Soviet Exploration of the North East Passage. London: Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, 1952.
Barr, William. “First Convoy to the Kolyma: The Soviet Northeast Polar Expedition, 1932–33.” Polar Record 19: 123 (1979): 563–72.
Bollinger, Martin J.  “Did Twelve Thousand Gulag Prisoners Die on the Dzhurma?”  Russian History/Histoire Russe, 29, No. 1 (Spring 2002), 65-78.
Brigham, Lawson E. The Soviet Maritime Arctic. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1991.
Gakkel’. “Арктическая Навигация 1936 года [Arctic navigation 1936].” Арктический Института Бюллетень [Arctic Institute bulletin] 10/11 (1936): 445–45.
Gakkel’. “Арктическая Навигация 1937 Года [Arctic navigation 1937.” Проблемы Арктика [Arctic problems] 1 (1938): 117–34.
Gakkel’. “Арктическая Навигация 1938 года [Arctic navigation 1938].” Проблемы Арктика [Arctic problems] 1 (1939): 72–77.
Horensma, Peter. The Soviet Arctic. London: Routledge, 1991.
Krypton, Constantine. The Northern Sea Route and the Economy of the Soviet North. London: Methuen, 1956.
McCannon, John. Red Arctic: Polar Exploration and the Myth of the North in the Soviet Union, 1932–1939. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Smolka, H.P. 40,000 against the Arctic: Russia’s Polar Empire. New York: William Morrow, 1937.
Stepaov. “Навигационный 1935 года Законченный [The navigation season of 1935 has ended].” Sovietskaya Arktika, no. 5 (1935): 7–10.
Taracouzio, Timothy A. Soviets in the Arctic. New York: Macmillan, 1938.
Trautman, Linda. “The Fall of the Commissariat of Ice 1935–1938.” Preliminary working paper presented to the Soviet Industrialization Project Series, University of Birmingham, October 18, 2000.
Yevgenov. “Возвращение Судов Северо-восточной Экспедиции года 1932 [The return of the ships of the 1932 northeastern expedition].” Арктический Института Бюллетень [Arctic Institute bulletin] 5 (1933): 118–24.
“Обзор плавание в водах арктические в 1934 года [Survey of navigation in the Arctic in 1934].” Арктический Института Бюллетень [Arctic Institute bulletin] 1–2 (1933): 1–4. 
“Беспрецедентное Рейс Парохода Рабочий [Unprecedented voyage of the steamship Rabochii].” Арктический Института Бюллетень [Arctic Institute bulletin] 10 (1935): 342.
Сквозные Груз плавание в Навигация 1935 года [Cargo navigation through the Northern Sea Route in the 1935 season].” Арктический Института Бюллетень [Arctic Institute bulletin] 10 (1935): 341.

Gulag History: Narratives of Labor Camp Managers and Staff
“Кровью Омытое Советское Золото [Blood-Washed Soviet Gold].” Социалистический Вестник [Socialist bulletin], 21–22 (December 10, 1945): 579–80.
Kozlov, Aleksandr G. “От Истории Колымских Лагерей: 1932–37 [From the history of the Kolyma camps: 1932–37].” Краеведческие Записки [Notes of the Museum of Regional History] 17 (1991): 61–91. [@BIBend]
[@A]Gulag History: Personal Narratives of Prisoners
[@BIB]Bardach, Janusz, and Kathleen Gleeson. Man Is Wolf to Man. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Bauer, Josef Martin. As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me. Translated by Lawrence Wilson. London: Andre Deutsch, 1957.
Buca, Edward. Vorkuta. Translated by Michal Lisinski and Kennedy Wells. London: Constable, 1976.
Ginzburg, Evgenia Semyonovna. Journey into the Whirlwind. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1967.
Glinka, Elena. “The Big Kolyma Streetcar.” Russian Life 31: 3 (March 1998): 40–41.
Gorbatov, A.V. Years Off My Life. New York: W.W. Norton, 1964.
Herling, Gustaw. A World Apart. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1951.
Lipper, Elinor. Eleven Years in Soviet Prison Camps. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1951.
Mandelstam, Nadezhda. Hope against Hope. New York: Modern Library, 1999.
Petrov, Vladimir. Soviet Gold: My Life as a Slave Laborer in the Siberian Mines. Translated by Mirra Ginzburg. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1949.
Sgovio, Thomas. Dear America. New York: Partners’ Press, 1979.
Shalamov, Varlam. Kolyma Tales. Translated by John Glad. London: Penguin Books, 1994.
Solomon, Michael. Magadan. New York: Vertex, 1971.
Solonevich, Ivan. Escape from Russian Chains. Translated by Warran Harrow. London: Williams and Norgate, 1938.
Vilensky, Simeon, ed. Till My Tale Is Told. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999. [@BIBend]
[@A]Gulag History: Syntheses of Personal Narratives
[@BIB]Conquest, Robert. Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps. New York: Viking Press, 1978.
Dallin, David J., and Boris I. Nicolaevsky., Forced Labor in Soviet Russia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1947.
Dark Side of the Moon. London: Faber and Faber, 1946.
Kravchenko, Victor. I Choose Justice. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1950.
Mora, Silvester. Kolyma: Gold and Forced Labor in the USSR. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Foreign Affairs, 1949.
Mora, Sylwester and Piotr Zwierniak. Sprawiedliwość Sowiecka [Soviet justice]. Włochy, 1945.
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. The Gulag Archipelago: 1918–1956. Vol. I. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
U.S. Department of Defense. Memoirs. Washington, D.C.: Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office, February 29, 2000, www.dtic.mil/dpmo/special/memoirs.pdf (December 2002).
———. The Gulag Study. Washington, D.C.: Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office, 2001, www.dtic.mil/dpmo/special/gulag_study.pdf (December 2002). [@BIBend]
[@A]General Gulag and “Great Terror“ History
[@BIB]Andrew, Christopher, and Vasili Mitrokhin. The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West. London: Penguin, 1999.
Applebaum, Anne.  Gulag: A History.  New York: Doubleday, 2003.
Bacon, Edwin. The Gulag at War: Stalin‘s Forced Labour System in the Light of the Archives. New York: New York University Press, 1994.
Batsaev, I.D. “Колымская Гряда Архипелага Гулаг, Заключенные [Kolyma range of the Gulag archipelago].” Исторические Аспекты Северо-Востока России: Экономика, Образование, Колымский Гулаг [Historical aspects of Russia’s Northeast: Economics, formation of the Kolyma Gulag] (1996): 50.
Central Intelligence Agency. Recent Developments in The Soviet Arctic. CIA/SC/RR 82. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Reports, October 13, 1954, www.foia.ucia.gov (December 2002).
———. Soviet Gold Production, Reserves and Exports through 1954. CIA/SC/RR 121. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Reports, October 17, 1955, www.foia.ucia.gov (December 2002.)
———. The Soviet Forced Labor System: An Update. F-1990-01720. Washington, D.C.: November 30, 1985, 4, www.foia.ucia.gov (December 2002).
Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
———. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Getty, J. Arch, and Oleg V. Naumov. The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Bolsheviks, 1932–1939. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
Jakobson, Michael. Origins of the Gulag: The Soviet Prison Camp System, 1917–1934. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1993.
Khlusov, M.I. The Economics of the Gulag and Its Part in the Development of the Soviet Union in the 1930s: A Documentary History. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1999.
Medvedev, Roy. Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism. Translated by George Shriver. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.
Medvedev, Zhores A. “Stalin and the Atomic Gulag.” Spokesman Books (2001), www.spokesmanbooks.com/spokesman/spksmn_69.htm (December 2002). 
Nordlander, David J. Capital of the Gulag: Magadan in the Early Stalin Era, 1929–1941. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1997.
Pilyasov, A.N. Динамика Промышленного Производства в Магаданской Области: 1932–1992 [Dynamics of industrial manufacturing in Magadan area: 1932–1992]. Magadan: 1993.
Pohl, J. Otto. Ethnic Cleansing in the Soviet Union, 1937–1949. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Pohl, J. Otto. The Stalinist Penal System: A Statistical History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930–1953. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1997.
Rogovin, Vadim Z. 1937: Stalin’s Year of Terror. Oak Park, MI: Mehring Books, 1998.
Wheatcroft, Stephen G. “Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data—Not the Last Word.” Europe/Asia Studies 51: 2 (1999).
Zemskov, Victor N. “Заключенные в 1930-ых (Демографические аспекты) [Prisoners in the 1930s (Demographic aspects)].” Социологические Исследования [Sociological research] 7 (1996): 6.

Internet and Unpublished Manuscripts
Amrakhov, Shafig. “Транспорт: Держать по створ [Transport: To stay the course].” 1999, www.press.lukoil.ru/text.phtml?result_artic=438&result=66 (December 2002).
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Bolotov, V.P., ed. “Документы о Гибели Парохода Индигирка в Районе п. Саруфуцу (о.Хоккайдо) в 1939 году [Documents about the destruction of the steamship Indigirka in the area of Sarufutsu (off Hokkaido) in 1939].” 1998, www.vld.ru/ppx/Indigir/Docs.htm (December 2002).
Chymakov, Valery. “Кому На Чукотке Жить Хорошо [Who on Chukotka can live well].” № Chukotka (December 1999), www.ropnet.ru/ogonyok/win/199990/90-46-49.html (December 2002).
Dinets, Vladimir. “Hitchhiking to Oimyakon and Beyond” (1999), www.hotcity.com/~vladimir/kolyma.htm (December 2002).
Far East Customs Management. “Находкинской таможне 50 лет [Customs house of 50 Years]” (2001), www.bazar2000.ru/custom/custom003.htm (December 2002).
Fumagali, Raul. “My Polish Friend: Amazing Life and Adventures,” www.thelatinmass.com/lopacki.html (December 2002).
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Gavrilov, Sergei. “Трагедия Буксира Кит [Tragedy of the tug Whale].” Новая Камчатская Правда [New Kamchatka truth], no. 41 (October 18, 2001), www.iks.ru/~nkp/arhiv/html_arhiv/2001/41/41_4.html (December 2002).
Kniazev, Lev. У Врат Блаженства [At the gates of bliss], www.vld.ru/ppx/Knyazev/Blazh.htm (December 2002).
Kowalski, Stanislaw J. “Kolyma: The Land of Gold and Death” (2000), www.personal.psu.edu/users/w/x/wxk116/sjk/kolyma4.htm (December 2002).
———. “White Auschwitz of Kolyma,”, www.gulag.hu/white_auschwitz.htm (January 2002).
Kozlov, Aleksandr G. “Кого Карал НКВД? [Who punished the NKVD?],” www.kolyma.ru/magadan/history/repres.shtml (January 2002).
———. “Взрывы в Бухте Нагаева: Правда И Вымысел [Explosions in Nagaevo Bay: Truth and fiction],” www.kolyma.ru/magadan/history/nagaevo.shtml (December 2002).
Mariev, Alexander. “Воспоминания [Memoirs].” Уральская Галактика [Ural galaxy] (1999), www.art.uralinfo.ru/literat/UG/ug3/mar_vosp.htm (December 2002).
Memorial (Kursk). “Сообщение Антона Иосифовича Миронова [Anton Iosifovicha Mironova’s message]” (1990), www.memorial.krsk.ru/svidet/mmiron.htm (December 2002).
———. “Сообщение Михаила Николаевича Соболева [Michael Nikolaevicha Soboleva’s message],” www.memorial.krsk.ru/svidet/mnsobol.htm (December 2002).
———. “Джафарова Берта Самойловна (Dzhafarova Berta Samoblovna],” www.memorial.krsk.ru/martirol/dj_dl.htm (December 2002).
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[@A]General Regional History
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